Ghana, a land of rich history, showcases the same through its diverse housing structures that have evolved over different periods, from the pre-colonial era to the post-independence period.
The traditional architecture of Ghana’s pre-colonial era, constructed using natural elements such as mud, wood, and thatch, stands in contrast to the Victorian and Edwardian-style housing, reminiscent of the British colonial era, which emerged during Ghana’s colonisation. Following Ghana’s independence in 1957, the population grew rapidly, leading to a severe housing shortage of up to about 2 million units in deficit.
This article explores the evolution of Ghana’s housing history, encompassing its distinct styles, designs, and construction approaches that have emerged over time
In pre-colonial Ghana, from around 4000 BCE to the 15th century, housing was constructed using natural materials like mud, thatch, and wood to withstand the hot and humid climate of the region. These houses were typically small, round, and clustered around a central courtyard. Mud bricks or clay were used to build the walls, which were smoothed and plastered with mud, and the roof was thatched with grass or palm leaves. In some areas, wood was also used to construct frames and supports for the thatched roof. Communal living was common, with several families living together in a single compound surrounded by walls made of mud or other materials. The compounds contained multiple structures, including living quarters, storage areas, and animal pens. Pre-colonial housing in Ghana was unique to each region and community, closely tied to the local environment and cultural traditions.
Despite the limited technology, these structures were well-suited to the climate and served their inhabitants for centuries.
Ghana’s colonial housing history dates back to the late 19th century when the British established their colonial rule in the Gold Coast (now Ghana). The British built houses for their administrative officials and other staff in the Victorian and Edwardian styles using materials such as timber, brick, and concrete. The housing was not only meant for British officials but also used to accommodate other European settlers, missionaries, and traders in major cities and towns. Examples of colonial housing in Ghana include Christianborg Castle and colonial bungalows, with the latter being one-story structures designed to provide maximum ventilation and natural light. However, the indigenous population in Ghana did not have access to the same standard of housing, with the majority living in traditional housing such as mud huts. The colonial housing in Ghana reflects the architectural styles and preferences of the British colonial officials and served as a symbol of colonial power and privilege.
Today, many of these buildings still exist and serve various purposes, including government offices, museums, and tourist attractions.
Ghana gained independence from British colonial rule on March 6, 1957. After independence, the country experienced rapid population growth, which created a significant housing shortage. The first government-sponsored housing program, known as the State Housing Corporation (SHC), was established in 1956 to provide low-cost housing for civil servants and other low-income earners.
The corporation built several housing estates in Accra, Kumasi, and other major cities in the country.
In the 1960s, the government implemented the Accelerated Housing Scheme (AHS), which aimed to increase the supply of housing in the country. The AHS provided subsidies to private developers who built affordable housing for low-income earners. The scheme was successful in increasing the supply of housing in the country, but it was not sustainable, and it was eventually discontinued.
In the 1970s, the government introduced the National Housing Authority (NHA), which was tasked with building affordable housing units for the general population. The NHA built several high-rise apartment buildings in Accra and other major cities.
The government also launched the People’s Housing Programme (PHP), which aimed to provide housing for the poor and low-income earners. The PHP provided subsidies to individuals and groups who wanted to build their own houses. This programme also encouraged the development of cooperative housing societies, which helped to increase the supply of housing in the country.
In the 1980s, the government introduced the Affordable Housing Programme (AHP), which aimed to provide affordable housing for the middle class. The AHP provided mortgage financing to individuals and families who wanted to own homes. The programme was successful in increasing homeownership in the country, but it was not enough to meet the growing demand for housing. The government through Social Security and National Insurance Trust (SSNIT) launched low-cost housing loans and flats for its members.
Another major development in the late 1980s was the establishment of the Ghana Real Estate Developers Association (GREDA), which brought together real estate developers and professionals to promote the growth of the sector. GREDA has played a significant role in advancing the interests of the private sector in real estate development and advocating for policies and regulations that support sustainable and affordable housing.
In the 1990s, Ghana’s housing sector faced challenges due to population growth, urbanization, and increased demand for housing. To address the issue, the government launched the National Housing Policy in 1991, which aimed to provide affordable housing for all Ghanaians, regardless of income level. The policy encouraged private sector involvement in housing development and established the Ministry of Works and Housing to oversee the implementation of housing policies and initiatives. The government also launched the Community Water and Sanitation Agency to improve water and sanitation access and implemented the Ghana Urban Housing Project to provide affordable housing for low- and middle-income earners in urban areas. These initiatives helped to improve the living conditions of residents and develop the country’s housing sector
Ghana’s housing sector has experienced remarkable growth and transformation from the early 2000s to today, driven mainly by private sector investment in real estate. The government’s policies to improve housing policies, infrastructure, and financing access have created a conducive environment for private sector investment. Urbanization and a growing middle class have driven the increasing demand for housing, leading to opportunities for private developers to build and sell homes. The government’s policies, such as the National Mortgage Scheme and the National Housing Fund, have contributed to the sector’s growth by improving financing access for homebuyers. The sector’s growth has led to urban landscape transformation and homeownership opportunities. Despite challenges such as inadequate infrastructure and high construction costs, the focus on alternative building materials and technologies has led to cost-effective and sustainable solutions.
Despite these efforts, the country’s housing deficit continues to grow, with an estimated deficit of 2 million housing units. The high cost of construction and the limited access to finance continues to be major challenges for the government and private developers. The informal sector, which consists of low-income households who cannot afford the cost of formal housing, remains the most affected.
The government needs to involve the private sector in the construction of affordable housing and introduce several initiatives to support the development of low-cost housing by proving land space in urban areas to reduce the cost of building. The government must also establish partnerships with international organisations to access long-term funding and technical expertise to support the mortgage market.